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Cellular System
Handover & Handoff
Gsm Channels
GSM Frequency
GSM Encrytion algorithmn







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    Cellular System


    Cellular System is based on cells.

    A cellular network is a radio network distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a base station. When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of portable transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission.



    Cellular networks offer a number of advantages over alternative solutions:

    flexible enough to use the features and functions of almost all public and private networks
    increased capacity
    reduced power use
    larger coverage area
    reduced interference from other signals



    In a cellular radio system, a land area to be supplied with radio service is divided into regular shaped cells, which can be hexagonal, square, circular or some other irregular shapes, although hexagonal cells are conventional. Each of these cells is assigned multiple frequencies (f1 - f6) which have corresponding radio base stations. The group of frequencies can be reused in other cells, provided that the same frequencies are not reused in adjacent neighboring cells as that would cause co-channel interference.



    The increased capacity in a cellular network, compared with a network with a single transmitter, comes from the fact that the same radio frequency can be reused in a different area for a completely different transmission. If there is a single plain transmitter, only one transmission can be used on any given frequency. Unfortunately, there is inevitably some level of interference from the signal from the other cells which use the same frequency. This means that, in a standard FDMA system, there must be at least a one cell gap between cells which reuse the same frequency.



    Frequency reuse

    The key characteristic of a cellular network is the ability to re-use frequencies to increase both coverage and capacity. As described above, adjacent cells must use different frequencies, however there is no problem with two cells sufficiently far apart operating on the same frequency. The elements that determine frequency reuse are the reuse distance and the reuse factor.

    The reuse distance, D is calculated as


    where R is the cell radius and N is the number of cells per cluster. Cells may vary in radius in the ranges (1 km to 30 km). The boundaries of the cells can also overlap between adjacent cells and large cells can be divided into smaller cells.

    The frequency reuse factor is the rate at which the same frequency can be used in the network. It is 1/K (or K according to some books) where K is the number of cells which cannot use the same frequencies for transmission. Common values for the frequency reuse factor are 1/3, 1/4, 1/7, 1/9 and 1/12 (or 3, 4, 7, 9 and 12 depending on notation).



    The original 2-way-radio cell towers were at the centers of the cells and were omni-directional, a cellular map can be redrawn with the cellular telephone towers located at the corners of the hexagons where three cells converge.[5] Each tower has three sets of directional antennas aimed in three different directions with 120 degrees for each cell (totaling 360 degrees) and receiving/transmitting into three different cells at different frequencies. This provides a minimum of three channels (from three towers) for each cell. The numbers in the illustration are channel numbers, which repeat every 3 cells. Large cells can be subdivided into smaller cells for high volume areas.

    Broadcast messages and paging:

    Practically every cellular system has some kind of broadcast mechanism. This can be used directly for distributing information to multiple mobiles, commonly, for example in mobile telephony systems, the most important use of broadcast information is to set up channels for one to one communication between the mobile transceiver and the base station. This is called paging. The three different paging procedures generally adopted are sequential, parallel and selective paging.



    Related Topics:

    0. Cellular System

    1. Handover(Handsoff),

    2. Inter BSS Intra MSCand Inter MSC call Handoff

    3. GSM Frequency

    4. Gsm Channels

    5. Call origination in GSM

    6. call Initiation in cellular

    7. GSM Encryption Algorithmn A5, A5/1, A5/2, A5/3






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